SED - Sanat Eğitimi Dergisi
Cilt 10, Sayı 2  2022/Güz  (ISSN: 2147-8007, E-ISSN: )
Şemseddin Ziya DAĞLI

NO Makale Adı

Due to their nature, artists are both affected by the dynamics of the society they live in and affect the lives of their social circles and peoples of the world with the works of art they produce. This effect starts with the changes in aesthetic perception in the field of art and then manifests itself in different elements of the social structure. When the artists of the period are examined, Pablo Ruiz Picasso undoubtedly leads the list of affected-influencing artists. The reason for this is that Picasso was an artist who internalized the social problems of his time and presented these problems to the attention of the people of the world by using his striking artistic language and original technique. It has gained an important position in the history of art with its works evaluated in many branches of plastic art and in many art movements. Throughout his life, he worked with almost every subject and technique and produced works. The world-famous artist, who is the founder of the cubism art movement, aimed to bring a new breath to art with his works throughout his life. Pablo Ruiz Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain, to his parents Jose Ruiz Blasco and Maria Picasso Lopez. Born in an art-loving and well-educated family, Picasso spent the first ten years of his life in comfort and wealth in the city where he was born. When Picasso and his family had to move to La Coruna due to the economic difficulties of the family in 1890, Picasso and his family were greatly affected by this new situation. has taken on a sad nature. Picasso and his family have been living in Barcelona since 1985. Pablo Picasso's education began in La Guarda Institute, located in the building of the San Telmo Fine Arts School, where his father was an art teacher in the city of La Coruna. Picasso, who has a more active temperament than his peers and gets bored with everything, often preferred to stay at home and paint and go to school. Pablo, whose interest and talent for painting was noticed by his family at a very early age, gained his first knowledge about art thanks to the art education he received from his father, Jose Ruiz Blasco, who was a painter and also an art teacher. Picasso, who is called the art genius of his time, has been interested in painting since his childhood and his works were appreciated by his environment. Many of the paintings he made as a child in the 1890s have survived to the present day. Apart from the education he received at the La Guarda Institute in the 1892s, Picasso, who started to take painting lessons at the school where his father was working, started to create his first artistic works by finding the opportunity to examine many classical works of art despite his young age. He passed the San Fernando Academy entrance exam in 1897, but did not stay there for long. Artists, intellectuals and educators took part in the social circle he created in Barcelona. Picasso, whose artistic life began at a very young age, won an honorary award from the National Fine Arts Exhibition in Spain with his painting "Science and Compassion", which he painted in a realistic style in 1897 at the age of sixteen. He had the opportunity to come into contact with avant-garde circles in Horta de Ebro, where he stayed for a while due to an important health problem he had at that time. Picasso, who also designs paintings, sculptures, ceramics and theater, opened his first personal exhibition in the cafe named Els Quatre Gats in 1900. He participated in the exhibition opened at the Louvre Museum with his painting "Last Moments". A year later, he went to Madrid and on March 10, 1901, together with Francisco de Asis Soler, he published a magazine called 'Arte Joven' (Young art), and from that day on, Picasso started to sign his paintings, which he signed with three names. Picasso, who produced works within the symbolism and surrealism movements and even pioneered these movements, has produced works that astonish many people throughout his life.
The aim of this research is to focus on the reflections of symbolism and surrealism in Picasso's works, to include the works he made in this period and to evaluate these works in terms of content and form.
Picasso, who was deeply affected by symbolism before surrealism, directed his works according to the art movement of the age, with the variety of subjects and technical experiences in his works. In addition to using the painting techniques he had mastered, he used all his talent and emotional intensity to work. Picasso, who reflects the movement required by the artist's spirit with his vast imagination and technique that he constantly develops, has mostly put people at the focal point of his works. Picasso, an artist who enjoys working, producing and at the same time renewing himself, has created many works of art in various sizes. Picasso observed people in difficult living conditions, especially in the periods called 'Pink' and 'Blue', and created a deep melancholic atmosphere by including daily gestures, facial expressions and body postures of especially poor and needy people in his paintings. The symbolism movement, which represents the contrast between human and social environment, gives universal qualities to meaningful and deep subjects. Picasso's work Guernica, which was first exhibited in the Spanish pavilion of the International Paris Fair held in 1937, was influenced by the events in the old capital in the northern region of Spain, which was bombed by the Basque nationalists, and the sad events that happened to the people living in that region, is an exemplary study of this situation. . In this work, the artist has revealed a certain artistic movement by choosing to use strong symbolic images of the horror and destruction of war. When it comes to political pressure and sanctions, the artist did not compromise on his personality and continued to share the unfair events experienced in the world with the rights from the perspective of the artist. In the picture; Michelangelo's Pieta, the crying woman figure holding the dead child in her arms, the figure holding a lamp for freedom, the figure with the sword in her hand, the figure in flames of the people who lost their lives in the cities that returned to the place of fire in the war, the figure of the bull, the enemy fleeing from the battlefield, the horse whose death is agonizing. The bird figure symbolizes the figure and freedom in the background. When 'Guernica' is mentioned today, a short section of what happened during the war period, a brief summary of a lesson that humanity should take from its dark past, and that humanism is the only element that allows the peoples of the world to live together comes to mind. A copy of Guernica has been exhibited at the entrance of the United Nations Security Council for many years, due to all these unifying and instructive features. After Picasso symbolism, he is one of the initiators of the surrealism movement, although he is not even an official member of the group. The Surrealism movement emerged after the 1920s and had an impact between the two great world wars and reached many artists and followers all over the world. Aiming to get rid of the effects of the destruction caused by the first world war, the artists embraced the progressive thinking and aimed to get people out of the depression they were in. This movement, which is defined as surrealism or surrealism, was first introduced by the French poet Andre Breton in 1924 and according to him, this movement is a way of combining the mind and the out-of-mind. Although Picasso's first surrealist painting 'Three Dancers' is the subject of the classic 'Three Beauties' theme, the figures in the painting consist of figures with crazy dance moves. Picasso's diligent work provided the recognition of surrealism and even gave direction to this movement. Breton later featured Picasso's 'Girls from Avignon' in the journal 'La Revolution surrealiste', published in 1925, to defend the surrealism movement and to strengthen his hand, and praised him. The female figures and the fictionalized background in this painting are depicted as distorted and deformed, contrary to the usual. With this painting, Picasso fictionalized the figures not as they seem, but by passing them through the filter of his own aesthetic judgments, and thus laid the foundations of the 'Cubism' movement that he would reveal in the coming years. Years later, Picasso explained that he was inspired by the masks and sculptures of African culture in the process of creating the figures, and stated that his purpose in doing this was to make the people of the world aware of the voice and existence of the rights that were exploited and wronged by the western states. While trying to exist in a world of war, hunger, poverty and death, his vast imagination and desire to produce art scorched him inside. In 1925, Man Ray, Paul Klee, Jean Arp and Pablo Picasso opened their first surrealist exhibition together at Galerie Pierre. Picasso's work "The Crying Woman", which he made in 1937, contains all the melodramatic influence of the painting "Guernica". Although he left Guernica due to the inconsistency of the colors used, the phenomenon of pain and hopelessness in its meaning exactly coincides with the bitter war experience that people have lived. This movement, which was established to liberate the soul and consciousness, aims to reveal the absolute truth and surreal concept in daily life. In this sense, Picasso produced works by being among the pioneers of the surrealism movement.
Within the framework of the art movements examined within the scope of the research, these developmental qualities are clearly observed in the works of artists. Based on all this information, in this study, "What are the effects of symbolism and surrealism in Picasso's works?" The answer to the question has been tried to be investigated.
This study is a research in which Picasso's transition process from symbolism to surrealism is questioned, and the existing situation is described as it is based on qualitative data. After the general framework of the research was drawn descriptively, since Picasso's transition from symbolism and surrealism was both visual and process-based, it was deemed appropriate to use the content analysis method within the scope of the study. In the study, depending on the current research topic, first of all, international and national related papers, articles, periodicals and books were scanned through databases on the internet and necessary information was obtained. The conceptual framework is explained by making inferences in terms of the artistic development of Picasso, with the data on the basis of the artistic works decided within the scope of the sample, the transition process from symbolism to surrealism. The works produced by the artist in this period were examined in terms of form and aesthetics. In the conclusion part; In line with the analyzes made in the previous sections, inferences were made about the artist.
The dark memories of the social events of the 20th century, as a reflection of Picasso's vast artistic spirit, have taken their place in people's memories in an unforgettable way. Undoubtedly, Picasso is one of the artists who left a deep impression on art audiences. Surrealism for Picasso, whom Breton expressed with admiration among the Surrealists; He thinks that in order for a work of art to be truly immortal, one must go beyond his own limits and approach his dreams by going deep into his mind. In this way, the person will be able to create a work by breaking the limited ties of his mind. Picasso's works both formed the basis of symbolist and surrealist painting and contributed to the development of these understandings. Apart from being a symbolist and surrealist, Picasso's art also influenced many movements (Fauvism, Cubism, Abstract Expressionism, Post-Modernism…). In this context, Picasso can be considered as a living and productive person who can think beyond his age.

Keywords: Painting, Picasso, Symbolism, Surrealism, Guernica, Three Dancers, Young Ladies of Avignon